Janina Piekutin*, Iwona Skoczko*, Roman Wysocki**
*Politechnika Białostocka
**Uniwersytet Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej, Lublin

Abstract
Aeration is the preceding process in chemical coagulation and it is applied to cause separation of dispersed petroleum hydrocarbons from wastewater. Chemistry of this process is based on long-chain hydrocarbons molecules breakdown by introducing oxygen to dangling bonds of hydrocarbon chains resulting in a breakdown into smaller chains. Then, in coagulation process by means of an added chemical bonding agent smaller hydrocarbons are recombined into large aggregates that sediment or flotate. Chemical and physical properties diversity of these substances has forced the need to develop methods that in most possible and efficient will obviate or reduce pollution caused by petroleum products. In this study the aeration – coagulation system was examined in petroleum products disposal from water. In laboratory research average petroleum products removal efficiency amounted to 54.43%.

Słowa kluczowe:
napowietrzanie, koagulacja, woda, substancje ropopochodne

104. Application of Coagulation Process for Removal of Petroleum Hydrocarbons After Aeration

Keywords:
aeration, coagulation, water, petroleum hydrocarbons

Pełny text / Full text
PDF (Polish)


mnisw m 
Zadanie Czasopismo, Annual Set The Environment Protection Volume 17. Year 2015 (wersja elektroniczna) dofinansowane ze środków Ministerstwa Nauki i Szkolnictwa Wyższego

Marta Markiewicz*, Agnieszka Przewodowska**, Włodzimierz Przewodowski**, Wioleta Stochła**
*Uniwersytet, Brema, Niemcy, Centrum Badan nad Środowiskiem i Zrównoważonych Technologii
**IHAR – PIB, Zakład Nasiennictwa i Ochrony Ziemniaka, Bonin

Abstract
Starch industry generates enormous amount of wastes which contains several valuable components such as minerals, proteins and amino acids. In the past those wastes were released to the environment in unchanged form or used as fertilizers or animal feed. However, economical and ecological functionality of those applications was minor and rather a result of lack of better options than real needs. Currently, due to the urgent necessity of environment pollution prevention as well as for economic reasons, research concerning development of new methods of recovery, bioconversion and utilization of valuable substances present in wastes is being undertaken. This publication aims to describe strategies of starch industry wastes conversion, mainly potato soap, into useful products. Historical, presently used and advanced biotechnological methods were described. In addition, an economical and ecological evaluation of methods was performed. Ion-Exchange chromatography can be an economically profitable technology for the isolation and purification of different native potato proteins. Using membrane adsorption instead of classical chromatography has many advantages. Further availability of filter modules with different shapes and capacities enables the efficient isolation of proteins on an industrial scale. The application of ion-exchange modules for active recovery of proteins from potato juice is confirmed by research. In recent years, Sartorius Stedim Biotech company has designed new modules with polymer spacers and different channel sizes (MA-IEX-modules) enabling processing of crude, particle-containing solutions using a tangential flowthrough the membranes. The great advantage of this solution is the possibility of omitting the first steps of the purification, what saves time and money. The usefulness of such units was confirmed by isolation of valuable potato proteins: patatin and low molecular weight from potato fruit juice from starch factory.
In this study a preliminary researches of the possibility of using the membrane ion exchange chromatography as a technique for recovery of biologically active protein from waste material which is potato pulp is also presented.

Słowa kluczowe:
odpady przemysłu skrobiowego, utylizacja odpadów, woda sokowa, wycierka ziemniaczana

103. Use of Membrane Chromatography for Recovery of Biologically Active Protein from Starch Industry Waste

Keywords:
starch industry wastes, wastes utilization, potato fruit juice, potato pulp

Pełny text / Full text
PDF (Polish)


mnisw m 
Zadanie Czasopismo, Annual Set The Environment Protection Volume 17. Year 2015 (wersja elektroniczna) dofinansowane ze środków Ministerstwa Nauki i Szkolnictwa Wyższego

Artur Wodołażski
Główny Instytut Górnictwa, Katowice

Abstract
The paper presents a computational simulation energy recovery of methanol dehydration to dimethyl ether (DME) in industrial process plant. Heat recovery technology from the viewpoint of energy saving in the environmental protection for the two key nodes in the system: reactor and distillation column was examined. Limited energy helps reduce emissions associated with the combustion of fuels into the atmosphere.
Currently operating technological installations should be characterized by energy- and material savings, where significantly reducing the impact of harmful emissions into the environment. These simulations are a valuable tool to support the design of installation to preliminary estimate benefits of circuit materials and energy which introduces a significant innovation in the environmental protection.

Słowa kluczowe:
Rekuperacja ciepła, synteza DME, modelowanie

101. Importance of Waste Heat Recovery from Dimethyl Ether Production Plant in Environment Protection

Keywords:
Self-Heat Recuperation, DME synthesis, modelling

Pełny text / Full text
PDF (Polish)


mnisw m 
Zadanie Czasopismo, Annual Set The Environment Protection Volume 17. Year 2015 (wersja elektroniczna) dofinansowane ze środków Ministerstwa Nauki i Szkolnictwa Wyższego

Agnieszka Karwacka*, Przemysław Niedzielski**, Ryszard Staniszewski***
*Starostwo Powiatowe, Poznań
**Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza
***Uniwersytet Przyrodniczy, Poznań

Abstract
Lakes, which led to environmental receiver plants, are under ever-increasing pressure from human and are the best object of study to assess the impact of anthropogenic activities on the state of eutrophication. In this assessment beyond the biological and physico-chemical conditions of the lake ecosystem, an important role is played by the impact of bottom sediments in these waters, which only allow to fully determine the level of anthropogenic pressure on the body of water. It is in the bottom sediments are accumulated pollution of the lake. Under favorable conditions in sediments accumulated dirt can again be released into the depths, acting potential source of danger for the whole ecosystem. Therefore, the aim of the study was to determine the susceptibility of selected lakes Powiat Poznański degradation and to assess the quality of these reservoirs bottom sediments.

Słowa kluczowe:
jeziora, osady denne, biogeny, metale

102. Assessment of Bottom Sediments from Selected Lakes of Poznań Region

Keywords:
lakes, sediments, biogenes, metals

Pełny text / Full text
PDF (Polish)


mnisw m 
Zadanie Czasopismo, Annual Set The Environment Protection Volume 17. Year 2015 (wersja elektroniczna) dofinansowane ze środków Ministerstwa Nauki i Szkolnictwa Wyższego

Grażyna Totczyk*, Iwona Klugiewicz*, Rafał Pasela*, Łukasz Górski**
*Uniwersytet Technologiczno-Przyrodniczy, Bydgoszcz
**Toruńskie Wodociągi Sp. z o.o., Wyższa Szkoła Zarządzania Środowiskiem, Tuchola

Abstract
With the treatment of water, especially surface waters, there is produced a high amount of sewage and sludge. They make up a serious ecology problem that due to a high volume and the content of sludge of iron or aluminium oxide-hydroxide or, pollution which occur in the intaken water (mineral and organic substances, algae, protozoa and bacteria) as well as the chemicals added.
The environmental protection requires limiting materials as well as it makes you search for effective waste management problem-solving methods. The waste generated at present during water treatment most often undergo dehydration and drying and then they are deposited at the landfill site. The currently binding environmental protection law makes you look for the possibilities of the use of sludge as recycled materials, e.g. in brick factories, cement factories or with sewage treatment. Sludge containing aluminium or iron can be used e.g. in the process of municipal sewage treatment. The application of sludge containing aluminium for dephosphatation has the advantage of protecting the system from secondary release of precipitated phosphates in the environment deprived of dissolved oxygen. The possibilities of sludge application to remove phosphates differ, depend not only on the sludge characteristics but also on the sewage treatment process.
The article demonstrates the results of research into using sludge derived from water treatment station in Lubicz to remove phosphates from sewage. At present the sludge after sedimentation and mechanical dehydration with the filtration press finally reaches the municipal landfill site.
The sludge, applied for research, concentrated in settling vessels, is a mixture of post-coagulation sludge and washings from anthracite-sand and carbon filters. Its hydration accounting for 98,7% shows a high colour, above 80 mg Pt/dm3, it contains about 2,6 g/dm3 of aluminium as well as organic compounds expressed with BOD5 value equal 170 mg O2/dm3. The sludge shows a high COD of 3990 mg O2/dm3, and organic substance – for 31,6% of dry weight.
The study of effectiveness of the removal of phosphates was made with the vessel test method. The sludge was dispensed at a changing volume from 0,5 to 100 cm3 per 1 dm3 of prepared water and then sewage. Both in water and in sewage there was recorded a 90% removal of phosphates by applying 80 cm3 of sludge per 1 dm3 of the sample. Additionally there was investigated the effect of dispensed sludge on the effectiveness of sewage treatment with the model of the treatment plant with rotating biological contactors. Applying the rate of 40 cm3 of sludge per 1 dm3 produced 96,0% elimination of COD, 97,7% removal of organic compounds characterised with the values of COD and BOD5 as well as 100% removal of phosphates.
Finally it was found that it is possible to use the sludge to remove phosphates from sludge. During dephosphatation there was reported no use-up of the natural alkalinity of sewage. Sludge dispensing did not result in a decrease in the effectiveness of sewage treatment with the method of rotating biological contactors.
The research is preliminary in nature and it needs to be continued.

Słowa kluczowe:
osady z uzdatniania wody, osady pokoagulacyjne zawierające glin, defosfatacja, TZB, oczyszczalnia ścieków

100. Removal of Phosphates with Post-technological Sludge from Water Treatment Plant

Keywords:
water processing sludge, alumina water processing sludge, dephosphatation, RBC, sewage treatment plant

Pełny text / Full text
PDF (Polish)


mnisw m 
Zadanie Czasopismo, Annual Set The Environment Protection Volume 17. Year 2015 (wersja elektroniczna) dofinansowane ze środków Ministerstwa Nauki i Szkolnictwa Wyższego